Как вырастить грецкий орех

Октябрь 21 21:48 2016

Как вырастить грецкий орехМногие орехи предпочитают солнце и тропический тип климата. Именно поэтому их можно найти в южных широтах, где деревья богато плодоносят. К ним относится и грецкий орех. Его привозят из Турции, регионов Азии и Кавказа. Садоводы нередко хотят украсить свой участок растением из грецкого ореха, но сомневаются, сможет ли оно прижиться на русской земле в условиях умеренного климата.

Особенности выращивания

Южное растение можно посадить на собственном участке, но для этого необходимо подобрать правильный сорт. За последние годы садоводы смогли вывести несколько зимостойких сортов грецкого ореха, которые хорошо чувствуют себя в умеренных широтах.

Для посадки орехового дерева нужно подбирать качественные зимостойкие сорта грецкого ореха, семена которого должны быть хорошо вызревшими.

Для посадки растения подходит весенняя и осенняя пора года. Если орехи сеять весной, то необходимо производить их стратификацию. Для этого семена перемешиваются с слегка мокрым песком, помещаются в пакет и хранятся, таким образом, при температуре не менее +7°C. Такая процедура производится за 3 месяца до начала посадки.

Посев можно начинать с середины мая, закладывая подготовленные семена в почву на глубину 8 см. Орехи необходимо класть боком и присыпать землей. Если высаживать грецкий орех в весенний период, уже через 10 дней, можно заметить его ростки.

Если же посадка растения осуществляется в осеннюю пору, то необходимость процедуры стратификации отпадает. Зимой этот процесс сможет произойти в естественных условиях.

Посаженным семенам требуется основной уход: рыхление почвы, своевременный полив и удаление сорняков.

Спустя год саженцы вырастают. Далее их выкапывают с комом земли и пересаживают на постоянное место. Землю, которая будет покрывать растение, рекомендуется удобрить перегноем.

Выросшие саженцы грецкого ореха помещают в посадочную яму. Корни растения расправляют, придавая им естественное положение. Далее саженцы засыпаются землей и поливаются несколькими ведрами воды. Прикорневой круг грецкого ореха рекомендуется присыпать перегноем.

Порядок обрезания

Если зимой наблюдаются сильные морозы, грецкий орех может перемерзнуть. На растении начинают отмирать ветки в кроне либо появляются сильные побеги на штамбе. Иногда рост саженцев может прекратиться. Если происходит подобное повреждение дерева холодом, с его обрезкой в первый год лучше повременить. Рекомендуется делать это на втором году его жизни ранней весной.

Ветки грецкого ореха обрезаются по следующему принципу: над развитыми и удобно размещенными побегами производится обрезка ветвей до живой ткани по всему периметру среза. Одновременно удаляются все вертикальные волчки, которые выросли рядом с побегами, выбранными для продолжения уменьшенной ветки. Боковые побеги растения остаются, чтобы на них могли формироваться плодовые веточки.

В последующие годы грецкий орех подвергается санитарной обрезке: удаление пересохших и больных ветвей и сучков, которые сгущают крону.

Процесс обрезки орехового дерева рекомендуется осуществлять именно в весеннюю пору, когда наступает период покоя растения. Таким обрезанием можно предупредить процесс выделения пасоки из ран дерева. Избыточное количество этого вещества может провоцировать появление грибковых заболеваний у грецкого ореха.

Вторичную и дальнейшие обрезки можно производить в летний период. Именно в эту пору наблюдается спад движения соков. Процесс лучше начинать в утренние, вечерние часы или в облачную погоду.

Раны, образуемые на дереве при обрезке веток, зачищаются ножом и смазываются садовым варом.

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